Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is highly prevalent among individuals with bipolar disorders (BP); however few studies have examined its potential role in the course and outcome of individuals with BP. We aim to examine the dose response relationship between the number of types of CM and the course of individuals with BR
Methods: As part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 1600 adults who met lifetime DSM-IV criteria for BP-I (n=1172) and BP-II (n=428) were included. Individuals were evaluated using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DMS-IV Version and data was analyzed lifetime and from Waves 1 and 2, approximately 3 years apart.
Results: Around half of individuals with BP had a history of at least one type of CM. Overall, there was a clear dose-response relationship between number of CM and severity of BP across several domains, including clinical characteristics, probability of treatment, lifetime prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity, incidence of anxiety disorders, substance use disorder, and nicotine dependence, and level of psychosocial functioning.
Limitations: The interviews were conducted by lay professional interviewers rather than clinicians, use of retrospective report to determine CM in individuals with BP, and not all respondents from Wave 1 were able to be interviewed in Wave 2.
Conclusions: The number of types of CM confers developmental differences in the course of BP with a worse course and outcome of BP. Early identification and treatment of CM are warranted to improve the course and outcome of individuals with BP.
- Bipolar disorder
- Childhood maltreatment
- INTERVIEW SCHEDULE AUDADIS
- GENERAL-POPULATION SAMPLE
- PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSTIC MODULES
- ANXIETY DISORDERS
- SUICIDE ATTEMPTS
- PHYSICAL ABUSE
- DRUG MODULES