Arteriovenous fistulas are the ideal form of vascular access that allows provision of haemodialysis. Stenotic lesions caused by neointimal hyperplasia commonly occur resulting in patients requiring a fistuloplasty. This is effective but there is a high recurrence rate. We sought to investigate the effects of a fistuloplasty on monocyte populations. Blood samples were taken from patients before and after their fistuloplasty procedure. Samples were analysed using flow cytometry, ELISA and Luminex assays. Univariate cox regression was carried out to investigate associations with post fistuloplasty patency. At 1–2 days post fistuloplasty, the proportion of classical (CD14++CD16−) monocytes decreased (p < 0.001), whilst intermediate (CD14++CD16+) and non-classical (CD14+CD16+) monocytes increased (both p < 0.01) in a cohort of 20 patients. A time course study carried out in 5 patients showed that this was due to an increase in absolute numbers of non-classical and intermediate monocytes. Higher levels of non-classical monocytes pre-fistuloplasty were associated with an increased risk for patency loss (p < 0.05). We measured 41 soluble factors in plasma samples taken before a fistuloplasty in 54 patients, with paired post-fistuloplasty samples (1–2 days) available in 30 patients. After correcting for false discovery, the only factor with a significant change in level was IL-6 (P = 0.0003, q = 0.0124). In a further time-course study in 6 patients, peak level of IL-6 occurred 2–3 h post fistuloplasty. This study demonstrates that there is a systemic inflammatory response to the fistuloplasty procedure and that monocyte subsets and IL-6 may be important in the pathophysiology of restenosis.