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Clearance of inflammatory cytokines in patients with septic acute kidney injury during renal replacement therapy using the EMiC2 filter (Clic-AKI study)

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Nuttha Lumlertgul, Anna Hall, Luigi Camporota, Siobhan Crichton, Marlies Ostermann

Original languageEnglish
Article number39
JournalCRITICAL CARE
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
PublishedDec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: We would like to acknowledge the support from the research nurse, Katie Lei, and renal nurses, Helen Dickie and Linda Tovey, in the critical care department at Guy?s & St Thomas? Hospital who helped recruiting patients and taking the samples according to the study protocol. Publisher Copyright: © 2021, The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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Abstract

Background: The EMiC2 membrane is a medium cut-off haemofilter (45 kiloDalton). Little is known regarding its efficacy in eliminating medium-sized cytokines in sepsis. This study aimed to explore the effects of continuous veno-venous haemodialysis (CVVHD) using the EMiC2 filter on cytokine clearance. Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in critically ill patients with sepsis and acute kidney injury requiring kidney replacement therapy. We measured concentrations of 12 cytokines [Interleukin (IL) IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, epidermal growth factor (EGF)] in plasma at baseline (T0) and pre- and post-dialyzer at 1, 6, 24, and 48 h after CVVHD initiation and in the effluent fluid at corresponding time points. Outcomes were the effluent and adsorptive clearance rates, mass balances, and changes in serial serum concentrations. Results: Twelve patients were included in the final analysis. All cytokines except EGF concentrations declined over 48 h (p < 0.001). The effluent clearance rates were variable and ranged from negligible values for IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, and EGF, to 19.0 ml/min for TNF-α. Negative or minimal adsorption was observed. The effluent and adsorptive clearance rates remained steady over time. The percentage of cytokine removal was low for most cytokines throughout the 48-h period. Conclusion: EMiC2-CVVHD achieved modest removal of most cytokines and demonstrated small to no adsorptive capacity despite a decline in plasma cytokine concentrations. This suggests that changes in plasma cytokine concentrations may not be solely influenced by extracorporeal removal. Trial registration: NCT03231748, registered on 27th July 2017.

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