Clinical experience of using virtual 3D modelling for pre and intraoperative guidance during robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy

Lorenz Berger*, Aziz Gulamhusein, Eoin Hyde, Matt Gibb, Teele Kuusk, Joana Neves, Pedro Silva, Marta Marchetti, Ravi Barod, Maxine Tran, Prasad Patki, Axel Bex, Sebastien Ourselin, Prokar Dasgupta, Faiz Mumtaz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Surgical planning for robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy is widely performed using two-dimensional computed tomography images. It is unclear to what extent two-dimensional images fully simulate surgical anatomy and case complexity. To overcome these limitations, software has been developed to reconstruct three-dimensional models from computed tomography data. We present the results of a feasibility study, to explore the role and practicality of virtual three-dimensional modelling (by Innersight Labs) in the context of surgical utility for preoperative and intraoperative use, as well as improving patient involvement. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patients undergoing robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy at our high volume kidney cancer centre. Approval from a research ethics committee was obtained. Patient demographics and tumour characteristics were collected. Surgical outcome measures were recorded. The value of the three-dimensional model to the surgeon and patient was assessed using a survey. The prospective cohort was compared against a retrospective cohort and cases were individually matched using RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines) scores. Results: This study included 22 patients. Three-dimensional modelling was found to be safe for this prospective cohort and resulted in good surgical outcome measures. The mean (standard deviation) console time was 158.6 (35) min and warm ischaemia time was 17.3 (6.3) min. The median (interquartile range) estimated blood loss was 125 (50–237.5) ml. Two procedures were converted to radical nephrectomy due to the risk of positive margins during resection. The median (interquartile range) length of stay was 2 (2–3) days. No postoperative complications were noted and all patients had negative surgical margins. Patients reported improved understanding of their procedure using the three-dimensional model. Conclusion: This study shows the potential benefit of three-dimensional modelling technology with positive uptake from surgeons and patients. Benefits are improved perception of vascular anatomy and resection approach, and procedure understanding by patients. A randomised controlled trial is needed to evaluate the technology further. Level of evidence: 2b.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Urology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • 3D modelling
  • 3D reconstruction
  • partial nephrectomy
  • patient education
  • Robotics
  • surgical planning


Dive into the research topics of 'Clinical experience of using virtual 3D modelling for pre and intraoperative guidance during robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this