Clinical outcomes and costs for people with complex psychosis; a naturalistic prospective cohort study of mental health rehabilitation service users in England

Helen Killaspy, Louise Marston, Nicholas Green, Isobel Harrison, Melanie Lean, F Holloway, Thomas Kern Jamieson-Craig, G. Leavey, Maurice Arbuthnott, Leonardo Alberto Koeser, Paul Richard McCrone, Rumana Omar, Michael King

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Mental health rehabilitation services in England focus on people with complex psychosis. This group tend to have lengthy hospital admissions due to the severity of their problems and, despite representing only 10–20 % of all those with psychosis, they absorb 25–50 % of the total mental health budget. Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these services and there is little evidence available to guide clinicians working in this area. As part of a programme of research into inpatient mental health rehabilitation services, we carried out a prospective study to investigate longitudinal outcomes and costs for patients of these services and the predictors of better outcome.

Inpatient mental health rehabilitation services across England that scored above average (median) on a standardised quality assessment tool used in a previous national survey were eligible for the study. Unit quality was reassessed and costs of care and patient characteristics rated using standardised tools at recruitment. Multivariable regression modelling was used to investigate the relationship between service quality, patient characteristics and the following clinical outcomes at 12 month follow-up: social function; length of admission in the rehabiliation unit; successful community discharge (without readmission or community placement breakdown) and costs of care.

Across England, 50 units participated and 329 patients were followed over 12 months (94 % of those recruited). Service quality was not associated with patients’ social function or length of admission (median 16 months) at 12 months but most patients were successfully discharged (56 %) or ready for discharge (14 %), with associated reductions in the costs of care. Factors associated with successful discharge were the recovery orientation of the service (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00–1.08), and patients’ activity (OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01–1.05) and social skills (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.04–1.24) at recruitment.

Inpatient mental health rehabilitation services in England are able to successfully discharge over half their patients within 18 months, reducing the costs of care for this complex group. Provision of recovery orientated practice that promotes patients’ social skills and activities may further enhance the effectiveness of these services.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Publication statusPublished - 7 Apr 2016


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