Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent and often severe in children and adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although native vitamin D {25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]} is thought to have pleiotropic effects on many organ systems, its skeletal effects have been most widely studied. The 25(OH)D deficiency is causally linked with rickets and fractures in healthy children and those with CKD, contributing to the CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) complex. There are few studies to provide evidence for vitamin D therapy or guidelines for its use in CKD. A core working group (WG) of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) CKD-MBD and Dialysis WGs have developed recommendations for the evaluation, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency in children with CKD. We present clinical practice recommendations for the use of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in children with CKD Stages 2-5 and on dialysis. A parallel document addresses treatment recommendations for active vitamin D analogue therapy. The WG has performed an extensive literature review to include meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials in healthy children as well as children and adults with CKD, and prospective observational studies in children with CKD. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system has been used to develop and grade the recommendations. In the absence of applicable study data, the opinion of experts from the ESPN CKD-MBD and Dialysis WGs is provided, but clearly GRADE-ed as such and must be carefully considered by the treating physician, and adapted to individual patient needs as appropriate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1098-1113
Number of pages16
JournalNephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • Child
  • Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Observational Studies as Topic
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards
  • Prospective Studies
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy
  • Vitamin D/therapeutic use
  • Vitamin D Deficiency/complications


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