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Clozapine and Norclozapine Plasma Levels in Patients Switched Between Different Liquid Formulations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)491-496
Number of pages6
JournalTherapeutic Drug Monitoring
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020

King's Authors


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clozapine is the drug of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The primary objective of this study was to compare plasma clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine levels in patients switched between 2 liquid formulations [Denzapine suspension and clozapine oral solution (St George's ZTAS)]. Secondary objectives included comparison of safety, tolerability, and patient acceptability. METHODS: This was a noninterventional, observational, prospective follow-up of patients consecutively switched between formulations of clozapine liquid in a large inner-city NHS mental health trust. The authors also performed retrospective analysis of outcomes from patient case notes. RESULTS: The authors identified 43 patients receiving Denzapine suspension in the trust. Data were available for 43 patients switched from Denzapine to clozapine oral solution (St George's ZTAS), among whom, 15 (32%) were excluded from the analysis. Of the 28 patients for whom data were available, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of mean values for corrected Cmin 91.5 (85.2%-98.4%) and uncorrected Cmin 91.2 (84.4%-98.6%) were within the guideline range of bioequivalence (80%-125%). Safety and tolerability profiles were comparable between the 2 formulations (P = 0.10). Patient acceptability was also similar between the brands in most domains. However, there was a taste preference for Denzapine suspension. CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference in clozapine plasma levels was observed after switching from Denzapine suspension to a recently introduced clozapine solution. This study also highlights the significance of medicinal characteristics such as taste for patient acceptability and compliance.

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