Co-Producing and Co-Designing

Glenn Robert, Louise Locock, Oli Williams, Jocelyn Cornwell, Sara Donetto, Joanna Goodrich

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

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Many healthcare improvement approaches originated in manufacturing, where end users are framed as consumers. But in healthcare, greater recognition of the complexity of relationships between patients, staff, and services (beyond a provider–consumer exchange) is generating new insights and approaches to healthcare improvement informed directly by patient and staff experience. Coproduction sees patients as active contributors to their own health and
explores how interactions with staff and services can best be supported. Co-design is a related but distinct creative process where patients and staff work in partnership to improve services or develop interventions. Both approaches are promoted for their technocratic benefits (better experiences, more effective and safer services) and democratic rationales (enabling inclusivity and equity), but the evidence base remains limited. This Element explores the origins of co-production and co-design, the development of approaches in healthcare, and
associated challenges; in reviewing the evidence, it highlights the implications for practice and research. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElements of Improving Quality and Safety in Healthcare
Place of PublicationCambridge
PublisherCambridge University Press, Cambridge
Number of pages54
ISBN (Electronic)2754-2912
ISBN (Print)9781009237031, 9781009237024
Publication statusPublished - 17 Aug 2022


  • accelerated experience-based co-design
  • EBCD
  • Co-production
  • Co-design
  • experience based co-design


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