Abstract

Background:

Envy is depicted as motivating destructive desires and actions intended to spoil or destroy that which is envied.

Aim:

To develop a new valid and reliable measure of malicious envy (C-BRES), which included items representing the cognitive, emotional and behavioural responses empirically associated with this emotion.

Method:

A total of 203 adults completed the new 22-item cognitive and behavioural responses to envy scale (C-BRES). Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to test for reliability and internal consistency of the C-BRES. Evidence towards the concurrent construct validity (convergent and discriminant) of the C-BRES was assessed through correlations with the Dispositional envy scale and other measures of psychosocial outcomes empirically linked to envy.

Results:

Factor analysis for categorical data identified five dimensions of envy, namely: injustice, hostility, malicious action tendencies, malicious feelings and behavioural responses. The reliability indices of the five factors and the total scale were satisfactory (>0.85). Evidence towards the concurrent construct validity (convergent and discriminant) of the C-BRES is reported. In particular, envy was associated with higher levels of depression, psychoticism, neuroticism, anger and lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life.

Conclusion:

All findings support the psychometric adequacy of the C-BRES.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)408-418
Number of pages11
JournalBehavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Volume48
Issue number4
Early online date29 Oct 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020

Keywords

  • envy
  • malicious
  • psychometric
  • cognitive
  • emotional
  • behavioural

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