Cognitive Remediation Works But How Should We Provide It? An Adaptive Randomized Controlled Trial of Delivery Methods Using a Patient Nominated Recovery Outcome in First-Episode Participants

Til Wykes, Dominic Stringer, Janette Boadu, Rose Tinch-Taylor, Emese Csipke, Matteo Cella, Andrew Pickles, Paul McCrone, Clare Reeder, Max Birchwood, David Fowler, Kathryn Greenwood, Sonia Johnson, Jesus Perez, Rosa Ritunnano, Andrew Thompson, Rachel Upthegrove, Jon Wilson, Alex Kenny, Iris IsokEileen M Joyce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Cognitive remediation (CR) benefits cognition and functioning in psychosis but we do not know the optimal level of therapist contact, so we evaluated the potential benefits of different CR modes.

STUDY DESIGN: A multi-arm, multi-center, single-blinded, adaptive trial of therapist-supported CR. Participants from 11 NHS early intervention psychosis services were independently randomized to Independent, Group, One-to-One, or Treatment-as-usual (TAU). The primary outcome was functional recovery (Goal Attainment Scale [GAS]) at 15-weeks post randomization. Independent and TAU arms were closed after an interim analysis, and three informative contrasts tested (Group vs One-to-One, Independent vs TAU, Group + One-to-One vs TAU). Health economic analyses considered the cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY). All analyses used intention-to-treat principles.

STUDY RESULTS: We analyzed 377 participants (65 Independent, 134 Group, 112 One-to-One, 66 TAU). GAS did not differ for Group vs One-to-One: Cohen's d: 0.07, -0.25 to 0.40 95% CI, P = .655; Independent vs TAU: Cohen's d: 0.07, -0.41 to 0.55 95% CI, P = .777. GAS and the cognitive score improved for Group + One-to-One vs TAU favoring CR (GAS: Cohen's d: 0.57, 0.19-0.96 95% CI, P = .003; Cognitive score: Cohens d: 0.28, 0.07-0.48 95% CI, P = .008). The QALY costs were £4306 for Group vs TAU and £3170 for One-to-One vs TAU. Adverse events did not differ between treatment methods and no serious adverse events were related to treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Both active therapist methods provided cost-effective treatment benefiting functional recovery in early psychosis and should be adopted within services. Some individuals benefited more than others so needs further investigation.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN14678860 https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN14678860 Now closed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)614-625
Number of pages12
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
Volume49
Issue number3
Early online date3 Mar 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Cognitive Remediation
  • Psychotic Disorders/therapy
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Cognition
  • Health Care Costs
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis

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