Combination of leukocyte and platelet–rich fibrin and demineralized bovine bone graft enhanced bone formation and healing after maxillary sinus augmentation: a randomized clinical trial

Carolina Mendonça De Almeida Malzoni, Elton carlos Pichotano, Luiz guilherme Freitas de paula, Ricardo violante De souza, Roberta Okamoto, Rupert S. Austin, Elcio Marcantonio jr, Rafael Scaf De Molon, Daniela leal Zandim-Barcelos

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Abstract

Background and objective: The resorption of alveolar ridge bone and maxillary sinus pneumatization are challenges to implant-supported prosthetic rehabilitation. Bone regeneration using bone substitutes and growth factors are alternatives for maxillary sinus augmentation (MSA). Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effects of the association between leukocyte and platelet–rich fibrin (L-PRF) and deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) in MSA procedures. Materials and methods: Thirty-six maxillary sinuses from 24 individuals were included in this randomized clinical trial. The maxillary sinuses were randomly grafted with LPRF and DBBM (test group) or grafted only with DBBM (positive control). Dental implants were installed in the test group following two periods of evaluation: after 4 (DBBM+LPRF4) and 8 (DBBM+LPFR8) months of sinus graft healing, while the control group received implants only after 8 months. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was taken 1 week after surgery (T1) and before implant placement (T2). Bone samples were collected during implant placement for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. The primary implant stability was assessed by resonance frequency analysis. Results: CBCT analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in bone volume from T1 to T2 in all groups without differences among them. Histologically, the test group showed significantly increase in bone neoformation in both periods of evaluation (LPRF+DBBM4: 44.70±14.01%; LPRF+DBBM8: 46.56±12.25%) compared to the control group (32.34±9.49%). The control group showed the highest percentage of residual graft. IHC analysis showed increased staining intensity of osteocalcin (OCN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2) in LPRF+DBBM4 group, and osteopontin (OPN) in the L-PRF+DBBM8. Primary implant stability was successfully achieved (above 60 in implant stability quotient) in all the evaluated groups. Conclusion: Combination of L-PRF and DBBM increased and accelerated new bone formation allowing early implant placement probably due to the higher protein expression of RUNX2, VEGF, OCN, and OPN. These data suggest that the use of L-PRF might be an interesting alternative to use in combination with DBBM for augment the maxillary sinuses allowing the installation of appropriate length implants in shorter period of time. Clinical relevance: This study showed improvement in bone neoformation and accelerated healing when associating L-PRF and DBBM for maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. Trial registration: This study was registered before participant recruitment in Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC - RBR-95m73t).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5485-5498
Number of pages14
JournalCLINICAL ORAL INVESTIGATIONS
Volume27
Issue number9
Early online date15 Aug 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

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