Combining Theory of Mind and Abductive Reasoning in Agent-Oriented Programming, Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

Odinaldo Rodrigues, Michael Luck, Nieves Montes, Carles Sierra, Nardine Osman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a novel model, called TomAbd, that endows autonomous agents with Theory of Mind capabilities. TomAbd agents are able to simulate the perspective of the world that their peers have and reason from their perspective. Furthermore, TomAbd agents can reason from the perspective of others down to an arbitrary level of recursion, using Theory of Mind of order. By combining the previous capability with abductive reasoning, TomAbd agents can infer the beliefs that others were relying upon to select their actions, hence putting them in a more informed position when it comes to their own decision-making. We have tested the TomAbd model in the challenging domain of Hanabi, a game characterised by cooperation and imperfect information. Our results show that the abilities granted by the TomAbd model boost the performance of the team along a variety of metrics, including final score, efficiency of communication, and uncertainty reduction.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages41
JournalAutonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2023


  • theory of mind, abduction, multi-agent systems

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