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Comparative Materials Differences Revealed in Engineered Bone as a Function of Cell-Specific Differentiation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

E Gentleman, RJ Swain, ND Evans, S Boonrungsiman, G Jell, MD Ball, TAV Shean, ML Oyen, A Porter, MM Stevens

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763 - 770
Number of pages8
Issue number9
PublishedSep 2009


  • nmat2505_1_.pdf

    nmat2505_1_.pdf, 1.85 MB, application/pdf

    Version:Final published version

  • Gentleman et al 2009

    Gentleman_et_al_2009.pdf, 30.3 MB, application/pdf

    Uploaded date:21 Jul 2015

    Version:Submitted manuscript

King's Authors


An important aim of regenerative medicine is to restore tissue function with implantable, laboratory-grown constructs that contain tissue-specific cells that replicate the function of their counterparts in the healthy native tissue. It remains unclear, however, whether cells used in bone regeneration applications produce a material that mimics the structural and compositional complexity of native bone. By applying multivariate analysis techniques to micro-Raman spectra of mineralized nodules formed in vitro, we reveal cell-source-dependent differences in interactions between multiple bone-like mineral environments. Although osteoblasts and adult stem cells exhibited bone-specific biological activities and created a material with many of the hallmarks of native bone, the 'bone nodules' formed from embryonic stem cells were an order of magnitude less stiff, and lacked the distinctive nanolevel architecture and complex biomolecular and mineral composition noted in the native tissue. Understanding the biological mechanisms of bone formation in vitro that contribute to cell-source-specific materials differences may facilitate the development of clinically successful engineered bone.

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