OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare two ALS staging systems, King's clinical staging and Milano-Torino (MiToS) functional staging, using data from the LiCALS phase III clinical trial (EudraCT 2008-006891-31).
METHODS: Disease stage was derived retrospectively for each system from the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised subscores using standard methods. The two staging methods were then compared for timing of stages using box plots, correspondence using chi-square tests, agreement using a linearly weighted kappa coefficient and concordance using Spearman's rank correlation.
RESULTS: For both systems, progressively higher stages occurred at progressively later proportions of the disease course, but the distribution differed between the two methods. King's stage 3 corresponded to MiToS stage 1 most frequently, with earlier King's stages 1 and 2 largely corresponding to MiToS stage 0 or 1. The Spearman correlation was 0.54. There was fair agreement between the two systems with kappa coefficient of 0.21.
CONCLUSION: The distribution of timings shows that the two systems are complementary, with King's staging showing greatest resolution in early to mid-disease corresponding to clinical or disease burden, and MiToS staging having higher resolution for late disease, corresponding to functional involvement. We therefore propose using both staging systems when describing ALS.
|Number of pages
|Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration
|Early online date
|5 Jan 2017
|E-pub ahead of print - 5 Jan 2017