Comprehensive Rare Variant Analysis via Whole-Genome Sequencing to Determine the Molecular Pathology of Inherited Retinal Disease

Keren J. Carss, Gavin Arno, Marie Erwood, Jonathan Stephens, Alba Sanchis-Juan, Sarah Hull, Karyn Megy, Detelina Grozeva, Eleanor Dewhurst, Samantha Malka, Vincent Plagnol, Christopher Penkett, Kathleen Stirrups, Roberta Rizzo, Genevieve Wright, Dragana Josifova, Maria Bitner-Glindzicz, Richard H. Scott, Emma Clement, Louise AllenRuth Armstrong, Angela F. Brady, Jenny Carmichael, Manali Chitre, Robert H H Henderson, Jane Hurst, Robert E. MacLaren, Elaine Murphy, Joan Paterson, Elisabeth Rosser, Dorothy A. Thompson, Emma Wakeling, Willem H. Ouwehand, Michel Michaelides, Anthony T. Moore, Timothy Aitman, Hana Alachkar, Sonia Ali, Louise Allen, David Allsup, Gautum Ambegaonkar, Julie Anderson, Richard Antrobus, Ruth Armstrong, Gavin Arno, Gururaj Arumugakani, Sofie Ashford, William Astle, Antony Attwood, Steve Austin, Chiara Bacchelli, Tamam Bakchoul, Tadbir K. Bariana, Helen Baxendale, David Bennett, Claire Bethune, Shahnaz Bibi, Maria Bitner-Glindzicz, Marta Bleda, Harm Boggard, Paula Bolton-Maggs, Claire Booth, Angie Brady, Matthew Brown, Michael Browning, Christine Bryson, Siobhan Burns, Paul Calleja, Natalie Canham, Jenny Carmichael, Keren Carss, Mark Caulfield, Elizabeth Chalmers, Anita Chandra, Patrick Chinnery, Manali Chitre, Colin Church, Emma Clement, Naomi Clements-Brod, Virginia Clowes, Gerry Coghlan, Peter Collins, Nichola Cooper, Amanda Creaser-Myers, Rosa DaCosta, Louise Daugherty, Sophie Davies, John Davis, Minka De Vries, Patrick Deegan, Sri V V Deevi, Charu Deshpande, Lisa Devlin, Eleanor Dewhurst, Rainer Doffinger, Natalie Dormand, Elizabeth Drewe, David Edgar, William Egner, Wendy N. Erber, Marie Erwood, Tamara Everington, Remi Favier, Helen Firth, Debra Fletcher, Frances Flinter, James C. Fox, Amy Frary, Kathleen Freson, Bruce Furie, Abigail Furnell, Daniel Gale, Alice Gardham, Michael Gattens, Neeti Ghali, Pavandeep K. Ghataorhe, Rohit Ghurye, Simon Gibbs, Kimberley Gilmour, Paul Gissen, Sarah Goddard, Keith Gomez, Pavel Gordins, Stefan Gräf, Daniel Greene, Alan Greenhalgh, Andreas Greinacher, Sofia Grigoriadou, Detelina Grozeva, Scott Hackett, Charaka Hadinnapola, Rosie Hague, Matthias Haimel, Csaba Halmagyi, Tracey Hammerton, Daniel Hart, Grant Hayman, Johan W M Heemskerk, Robert Henderson, Anke Hensiek, Yvonne Henskens, Archana Herwadkar, Simon Holden, Muriel Holder, Susan Holder, Fengyuan Hu, Aarnoud Huissoon, Marc Humbert, Jane Hurst, Roger James, Stephen Jolles, Dragana Josifova, Rashid Kazmi, David Keeling, Peter Kelleher, Anne M. Kelly, Fiona Kennedy, David Kiely, Nathalie Kingston, Ania Koziell, Deepa Krishnakumar, Taco W. Kuijpers, Dinakantha Kumararatne, Manju Kurian, Michael A. Laffan, Michele P. Lambert, Hana Lango Allen, Allan Lawrie, Sara Lear, Melissa Lees, Claire Lentaigne, Ri Liesner, Rachel Linger, Hilary Longhurst, Lorena Lorenzo, Rajiv Machado, Rob Mackenzie, Robert MacLaren, Eamonn Maher, Jesmeen Maimaris, Sarah Mangles, Ania Manson, Rutendo Mapeta, Hugh S. Markus, Jennifer Martin, Larahmie Masati, Mary Mathias, Vera Matser, Anna Maw, Elizabeth McDermott, Coleen McJannet, Stuart Meacham, Sharon Meehan, Karyn Megy, Sarju Mehta, Michel Michaelides, Carolyn M. Millar, Shahin Moledina, Anthony Moore, Nicholas Morrell, Andrew Mumford, Sai Murng, Elaine Murphy, Sergey Nejentsev, Sadia Noorani, Paquita Nurden, Eric Oksenhendler, Willem H. Ouwehand, Sofia Papadia, Soo Mi Park, Alasdair Parker, John Pasi, Chris Patch, Joan Paterson, Jeanette Payne, Andrew Peacock, Kathelijne Peerlinck, Christopher J. Penkett, Joanna Pepke-Zaba, David J. Perry, Val Pollock, Gary Polwarth, Mark Ponsford, Waseem Qasim, Isabella Quinti, Stuart Rankin, Julia Rankin, F. Lucy Raymond, Karola Rehnstrom, Evan Reid, Christopher J. Rhodes, Michael Richards, Sylvia Richardson, Alex Richter, Irene Roberts, Matthew Rondina, Elisabeth Rosser, Catherine Roughley, Kevin Rue-Albrecht, Crina Samarghitean, Alba Sanchis-Juan, Richard Sandford, Saikat Santra, Ravishankar Sargur, Sinisa Savic, Sol Schulman, Harald Schulze, Richard Scott, Marie Scully, Suranjith Seneviratne, Carrock Sewell, Olga Shamardina, Debbie Shipley, Ilenia Simeoni, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Kenneth Smith, Aman Sohal, Laura Southgate, Simon Staines, Emily Staples, Hans Stauss, Penelope Stein, Jonathan Stephens, Kathleen Stirrups, Sophie Stock, Jay Suntharalingam, R. Campbell Tait, Kate Talks, Yvonne Tan, Jecko Thachil, James Thaventhiran, Ellen Thomas, Moira Thomas, Dorothy Thompson, Adrian Thrasher, Marc Tischkowitz, Catherine Titterton, Cheng Hock Toh, Mark Toshner, Carmen Treacy, Richard Trembath, Salih Tuna, Wojciech Turek, Ernest Turro, Chris Van Geet, Marijke Veltman, Julie Vogt, Julie von Ziegenweldt, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf, Emma Wakeling, Ivy Wanjiku, Timothy Q. Warner, Evangeline Wassmer, Hugh Watkins, Andrew Webster, Steve Welch, Sarah Westbury, John Wharton, Deborah Whitehorn, Martin Wilkins, Lisa Willcocks, Catherine Williamson, Geoffrey Woods, John Wort, Nigel Yeatman, Patrick Yong, Tim Young, Ping Yu, Andrew R. Webster, F. Lucy Raymond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

300 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Inherited retinal disease is a common cause of visual impairment and represents a highly heterogeneous group of conditions. Here, we present findings from a cohort of 722 individuals with inherited retinal disease, who have had whole-genome sequencing (n = 605), whole-exome sequencing (n = 72), or both (n = 45) performed, as part of the NIHR-BioResource Rare Diseases research study. We identified pathogenic variants (single-nucleotide variants, indels, or structural variants) for 404/722 (56%) individuals. Whole-genome sequencing gives unprecedented power to detect three categories of pathogenic variants in particular: structural variants, variants in GC-rich regions, which have significantly improved coverage compared to whole-exome sequencing, and variants in non-coding regulatory regions. In addition to previously reported pathogenic regulatory variants, we have identified a previously unreported pathogenic intronic variant in CHM in two males with choroideremia. We have also identified 19 genes not previously known to be associated with inherited retinal disease, which harbor biallelic predicted protein-truncating variants in unsolved cases. Whole-genome sequencing is an increasingly important comprehensive method with which to investigate the genetic causes of inherited retinal disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-90
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Volume100
Issue number1
Early online date29 Dec 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jan 2017

Keywords

  • copy-number variants
  • rare sequence variant
  • retinal dystrophy
  • whole-genome sequence

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