Transmission of the New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses Junín virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV) to humans is facilitated, in part, by the interaction between the arenavirus GP1 glycoprotein and the human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1). We utilize a mouse model of live-attenuated immunization with envelope exchange viruses to isolate neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) specific to JUNV GP1 and MACV GP1. Structures of two NAbs, termed JUN1 and MAC1, demonstrate that they neutralize through disruption of hTfR1 recognition. JUN1 utilizes a binding mode common to all characterized infection- and vaccine-elicited JUNV-specific NAbs, which involves mimicking hTfR1 binding through the insertion of a tyrosine into the receptor-binding site. In contrast, MAC1 undergoes a tyrosine-mediated mode of antigen recognition distinct from that used by the reported anti-JUNV NAbs and the only other characterized anti-MACV NAb. These data reveal the varied modes of GP1-specific recognition among New World arenaviruses by the antibody-mediated immune response.
- antibody response
- antibody-mediated neutralization
- host-cell interactions
- monoclonal antibody
- structural biology