Control of axis formation in Xenopus by the NF-KAPPA-B-I-KAPPA-B system

D Tannahill, Fiona C Wardle

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16 Citations (Scopus)


We describe the isolation and analysis in Xenopus of Xrel2, a novel member of the NF-kappa B/Rel protein family that remains to be described in other vertebrates. We show that Xrel2 is expressed throughout development but with higher levels in pre-gastrula embryos. Like other NF-kappa B/Rel proteins, Xrel2 protein is able to bind DNA at a kappa B-Motif. Ectopic expression of Xrel2 disrupts normal morphogenesis at the early gastrula stages suggesting that the NF-kappa B/Rel family have developmental functions at stages earlier than previously thought. We also show that the Xrel2 over-expression phenotype can be rescued by co-expression of I kappa B-alpha and that ectopic expression of I kappa B-alpha or I kappa B-gamma alone has no effect on development. Finally. we show that Xrel2 does not divert animal caps from an ectodermal to a mesodermal cell fate. Overall, these results suggest that the NF-kappa B/Rel family does have key functions in early vertebrate development, however, there is not a simple conservation of the Drosophila dorsal pathway.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549 - 558
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Developmental Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1995


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