COVID-19 and metabolic disease: mechanisms and clinical management

Charlotte Steenblock, Peter E H Schwarz, Barbara Ludwig, Andreas Linkermann, Paul Zimmet, Konstantin Kulebyakin, Vsevolod A Tkachuk, Alexander G Markov, Hendrik Lehnert, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Hannes Rietzsch, Roman N Rodionov, Kamlesh Khunti, David Hopkins, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Bernhard Boehm, Richard I G Holt, Jay S Skyler, J Hans DeVries, Eric RenardRobert H Eckel, K George M M Alberti, Bruno Geloneze, Juliana C Chan, Jean Claude Mbanya, Henry C Onyegbutulem, Ambady Ramachandran, Abdul Basit, Mohamed Hassanein, Gavin Bewick, Giatgen A Spinas, Felix Beuschlein, Rüdiger Landgraf, Francesco Rubino, Geltrude Mingrone, Stefan R Bornstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

151 Citations (Scopus)


Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)786-798
Number of pages13
JournalThe Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology
Issue number11
Early online date4 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


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