CRIMSON: An open-source software framework for cardiovascular integrated modelling and simulation

Christopher J. Arthurs*, Rostislav Khlebnikov, Alex Melville, Marija Marčan, Alberto Gomez, Desmond Dillon-Murphy, Federica Cuomo, Miguel Silva Vieira, Jonas Schollenberger, Sabrina R. Lynch, Christopher Tossas-Betancourt, Kritika Iyer, Sara Hopper, Elizabeth Livingston, Pouya Youssefi, Alia Noorani, Sabrina Ben Ahmed, Foeke J.H. Nauta, Theodorus M.J. van Bakel, Yunus AhmedPetrus A.J. van Bakel, Jonathan Mynard, Paolo Di Achille, Hamid Gharahi, Kevin D. Lau, Vasilina Filonova, Miquel Aguirre, Nitesh Nama, Nan Xiao, Seungik Baek, Krishna Garikipati, Onkar Sahni, David Nordsletten, C. Alberto Figueroa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, we describe the CRIMSON (CardiovasculaR Integrated Modelling and SimulatiON) software environment. CRIMSON provides a powerful, customizable and user-friendly system for performing three-dimensional and reduced-order computational haemodynamics studies via a pipeline which involves: 1) segmenting vascular structures from medical images; 2) constructing analytic arterial and venous geometric models; 3) performing finite element mesh generation; 4) designing, and 5) applying boundary conditions; 6) running incompressible Navier-Stokes simulations of blood flow with fluid-structure interaction capabilities; and 7) post-processing and visualizing the results, including velocity, pressure and wall shear stress fields. A key aim of CRIMSON is to create a software environment that makes powerful computational haemodynamics tools accessible to a wide audience, including clinicians and students, both within our research laboratories and throughout the community. The overall philosophy is to leverage best-in-class open source standards for medical image processing, parallel flow computation, geometric solid modelling, data assimilation, and mesh generation. It is actively used by researchers in Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. It has been applied to numerous clinical problems; we illustrate applications of CRIMSON to real-world problems using examples ranging from preoperative surgical planning to medical device design optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1008881
JournalPLoS Computational Biology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


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