Cross-national and cross-generational evidence that educational attainment may slow the pace of aging in European-descent individuals

Karen Sugden, Terrie Moffitt, Thalida Em Arpawong, Louise Arseneault, Daniel Belsky, David Corcoran, Eileen M. Crimmins, Eilis Hannon, Renate Houts, Jonathan Mill, Richie Poulton, Sandhya Ramrakha, jasmin wertz, Benjamin Williams, Avshalom Caspi

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Abstract

Objectives
Individuals with more education are at lower risk of developing multiple, different age-related diseases than their less educated peers. A reason for this might be that individuals with more education age slower. There are two complications in testing this hypothesis. First, there exists no definitive measure of biological aging. Second, shared genetic factors contribute towards both lower educational attainment and the development of age-related diseases. Here, we tested whether the protective effect of educational attainment was associated with the pace of aging after accounting for genetic factors.
Methods
We examined data from five studies together totaling almost 17,000 individuals with European ancestry born in different countries during different historical periods, ranging in age from 16 to 98 years old. To assess the pace of aging, we used DunedinPACE, a DNA methylation algorithm that reflects an individual’s rate of aging and predicts age-related decline and Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders (ADRD). To assess genetic factors related to education we created a polygenic score (PGS) based on results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment.
Results
Across the five studies, and across the lifespan, higher educational attainment was associated with a slower pace of aging even after accounting for genetic factors (meta-analysis effect size=-0.20, 95%CI[-0.30- -0.10]; p-value = 0.006). Further, this effect persisted after taking into account tobacco smoking (meta-analysis effect size=-0.13, 95%CI[-0.21- -0.05]; p-value = 0.01).
Discussion
These results indicate that higher levels of education have positive effects on the pace of aging, and that the benefits can be realized irrespective of individuals’ genetics.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournals of Gerontology Series. B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 29 Mar 2023

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