Cyclic di-nucleotides: new era for small molecules as adjuvants

Rimma Libanova, Pablo D. Becker, Carlos A. Guzman

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The implementation of vaccination as an empiric strategy to protect against infectious diseases was introduced even before the advent of hygiene and antimicrobials in the medical practice. Nevertheless, it was not until a few decades ago that we really started understanding the underlying mechanisms of protection triggered by vaccination. Vaccines were initially based on attenuated or inactivated organisms. Subunit vaccines were then introduced as more refined formulations, exhibiting improved safety profiles. However, purified antigens tend to be poorly immunogenic and often require the use of adjuvants to achieve adequate stimulation of the immune system. Vaccination strategies, such as mucosal administration, also require potent adjuvants to improve performance. In the 1990s, immunologists found that pathogens could be sensed as danger signals by receptors recognizing conserved motifs. Although our knowledge is still limited, tremendous advances were made in the understanding of host defence mechanisms regulated by these evolutionary conserved receptors, and the molecular structures which are recognized by them. This opened a new era in adjuvant development. Some of the latest players arrived to this field are the cyclic di-nucleotides, which are ubiquitous prokaryotic intracellular signalling molecules. This review is focused on their potential for the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)168 - 176
Number of pages9
JournalMicrobial Biotechnology
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Cyclic di-nucleotides: new era for small molecules as adjuvants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this