Defining and Validating Non-technical Skills Training in Robotics

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The importance of non-technical skills in surgery and robotics is becoming increasingly apparent. This has led to a growing focus on training and assessing these skill sets. Broadly, they are divided into cognitive (decision-making, situational awareness and planning) and social skills (teamwork, communication and leadership), alongside the personal resources factors an individual possesses. Some are particularly relevant to robotic procedures, including situational awareness and communication, due to the physcial distance present between the surgeon at the console, and the patient on the operating table. Training of these skills is predominantly undertaken in two settings: the classroom and the simulation lab. Teaching through didactic methods remains useful for introducing components of non-technical skills; however, it is often through simulation-based practice which allows for further more advanced development of these skills. Additionally, training of non-technical is increasingly being taught concurrently with technical skills, to reflect clinical practice. With increasing focus on training non-technical skills in robotic surgery, future work appears to be focusing on identifying the best modalities for training individual skill components such as leadership and decision-making. Furthermore, the use of cognitive training through mental imagery is being investigated as a cost-effective and self-directed modality to develop these skills in robotic procedures. It is therefore clear that whilst large strides have been achieved in robotic non-technical skills training, further work is still required to increase its wider scale incorporation and to identify the best modalities of training these unique skills.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRobotic Surgery
EditorsFarid Gharagozloo, Vipul Patel, Pier Giulianotti, Robert Poston, Rainer Gruessner, Mark Meyer
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-53594-0
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2021


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