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Design and progress of a factorial trial testing the effect of spironolactone and inorganic nitrate on arterial function in people at risk of or with type 2 diabetes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-53
JournalArtery Research
Early online date6 Nov 2015
Accepted/In press9 Oct 2015
E-pub ahead of print6 Nov 2015
PublishedDec 2015


King's Authors



Arterial stiffness (AS), as pulse wave velocity (PWV), is a powerful independent predictor of cardiovascular events and commonly complicates type 2 diabetes (T2D). This trial aims to test if AS, measured by the VaSera machine as cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and by Arteriograph measuring central PWV, can be reduced by spironolactone and/or inorganic nitrate from beetroot juice independently of blood pressure (BP) in those with or at risk of T2D.

A factorial design, double blind, randomised controlled trial in 18–80 year old men and women clinically diagnosed with T2D or at risk of it (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg m−2, positive family history or glucose intolerance). The study lasts up to 36 weeks with daily intervention of either ≤50 mg spironolactone (intervention) or ≤16 mg doxazosin (control), and beetroot juice with ≤400 mg (9 mmol) inorganic nitrate (intervention) or placebo beetroot juice, 0 mg nitrate (control). Non-invasive AS measurements are carried out at baseline and then at 12-week intervals thereafter.

To date, 95 participants have been consented and screened, 19 of these were not suitable or not willing to participate so that 73 have been randomised with 9 participants screened as eligible and awaiting randomisation. 53 participants have completed the study. Mean baseline and follow up measures of cardiac-ankle and cardiac-aortic bifurcation PWV and BP have been straightforward.


This is a proof-of-principle trial to alter AS independent of BP in a patient sample at high cardiovascular risk.

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