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Development and psychometric properties of the Discrimination and Prejudice Responses Scale; the DAPR

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-303
JournalStigma and Health
Early online date14 Nov 2019
Accepted/In press22 Sep 2019
E-pub ahead of print14 Nov 2019


King's Authors


The ways in which people respond to stigma can have important consequences for health outcomes, yet there is no measure that assesses responses to stigma that can be used across groups stigmatised for different reasons. The aims of this study were to develop and psychometrically evaluate a new stigma responses questionnaire that can be used by individuals with different types of stigmatised characteristics; the Discrimination and Prejudice Responses Scale (DAPR). On the basis of qualitative interviews with 20 people with lived experience of stigma, 96 items were developed. A principal components analysis (n = 966) identified 11 factors containing a total of 44 items: Preparation, Enjoyable Activity, Raise Awareness, Group Attachment, Rumination, Blame, Preparation, Self-reliance, Avoidance, Distancing and Secrecy. Each factor was found to have good reliability (α = 0.67 to 0.94) and acceptability. Confirmatory factor analysis (n = 592) confirmed the 11-factor model and provided validity for the measure. Each subscale of the DAPR was found to be significantly associated with related questionnaires in the expected directions, providing evidence for concurrent validity (n = 546). One-week test retest reliability (n = 154) was examined, with weighted Cohen’s kappa values ranging from 0.41-0.61 for each scale. Overall, the DAPR displayed sound psychometric properties with regards to factor structure, reliability, acceptability and validity. In conclusion, the DAPR is a reliable and valid measure of responding to stigma, prejudice and discrimination which can be used across a variety of marginalised groups.

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