Development and Psychometric Properties of the Multi-System Profile of Symptoms Scale in Patients with Rett Syndrome

Jatinder Singh, Federico Fiori, Mei Lin Law, Ruksana Ahmed, Shashidhar Ameenpur, Salah Basheer, Samiya Chishti, Rosie Lawrence, Mathilde Mastroianni, Abdolreza Mosaddegh, Paramala Santosh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a rare, neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by a range of problematic symptoms. There is yet to be a robust instrument to adequately capture the range of disease severity across the lifespan. In this study, we aimed to develop and assess the validity of an RTT-specific electronic Observer Reported Outcome (eObsRO), the Multi-System Profile of Symptoms Scale (MPSS). Methods: The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of a systematic literature review, focus groups, expert feedback, and a pilot test of the new scale. Modifications were made based on preliminary analysis and feedback collected in the pilot phase. Phase 2 consisted of the validation of the questionnaire based on two samples (Sample 1, n = 18; Sample 2, n = 106). Participants were all parents or caregivers of individuals with RTT. Results: The MPSS consists of 12 validated sub-scales (mental health problems, autonomic problems, cardiac problems, communication problems, problems in social behaviour, problems in engagement, gastrointestinal problems, problems in motor skills, neurological problems, orofacial problems, respiratory problems, and sleep problems), which explore symptom frequency in the past month and a supplement to the scale consisting of five sub-scales (sensory problems, immune dysfunction and infection, endocrine problems, skeletal problems, and dermatological problems), which is designed to capture symptom changes over a longer time period. The frequency of symptoms was rated on a 10-point slider scale, which then was automatically transformed into a 0 to 5 Likert score. All 12 sub-scales showed strong internal consistency (α ≥ 0.700) and good stability, ranging from 0.707 to 0.913. Pearson’s correlation showed a statistically significant (r = 0.649) correlation between the MPSS and the Rett Syndrome Behaviour Questionnaire (RSBQ) total score and significant correlations between sub-scales with items that were presented in both the MPSS and RSBQ. Conclusions: The MPSS is a psychometrically validated eObsRO using the HealthTrackerTM platform and has the potential to be used in clinical trials.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5094
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number17
Early online date30 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Development and Psychometric Properties of the Multi-System Profile of Symptoms Scale in Patients with Rett Syndrome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this