Development and psychometric properties of the Suicidality: Treatment Occurring in Paediatrics (STOP) Suicidality Assessment Scale (STOP-SAS) in children and adolescents

I. Flamarique*, P. Santosh, A. Zuddas, C. Arango, D. Purper-Ouakil, P. J. Hoekstra, D. Coghill, U. Schulze, R. W. Dittmann, J. K. Buitelaar, K. Lievesley, R. Frongia, C. Llorente, I. Méndez, R. Sala, F. Fiori, J. Castro-Fornieles

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Background: To create a self-reported, internet-based questionnaire for the assessment of suicide risk in children and adolescents. Methods: As part of the EU project 'Suicidality: Treatment Occurring in Paediatrics' (STOP project), we developed web-based Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for children and adolescents and for proxy reports by parents and clinicians in order to assess suicidality. Based on a literature review, expert panels and focus groups of patients, we developed the items of the STOP Suicidality Assessment Scale (STOP-SAS) in Spanish and English, translated it into four more languages, and optimized it for web-based presentation using the HealthTrackerTM platform. Of the total 19 questions developed for the STOP-SAS, four questions that assess low-level suicidality were identified as screening questions (three of them for use with children, and all four for use with adolescents, parents and clinicians). A total of 395 adolescents, 110 children, 637 parents and 716 clinicians completed the questionnaire using the HealthTrackerTM, allowing us to evaluate the internal consistency and convergent validity of the STOP-SAS with the clinician-rated Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Validity was also assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area of the STOP-SAS with the C-SSRS. Results: The STOP-SAS comprises 19 items in its adolescent, parent, and clinician versions, and 14 items in its children's version. Good internal consistency was found for adolescents (Cronbach's alpha: 0.965), children (Cronbach's alpha: 0.922), parents (Cronbach's alpha: 0.951) and clinicians (Cronbach's alpha: 0.955) versions. A strong correlation was found between the STOP-SAS and the C-SSRS for adolescents (r:0.670), parents (r:0.548), clinicians (r:0.863) and children (r:0.654). The ROC area was good for clinicians' (0.917), adolescents' (0.834) and parents' (0.756) versions but only fair (0.683) for children's version. Conclusions: The STOP-SAS is a comprehensive, web-based PROM developed on the HealthTrackerTM platform, and co-designed for use by adolescents, children, parents and clinicians. It allows the evaluation of aspects of suicidality and shows good reliability and validity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number213
JournalBMC Pediatrics
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2016

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Adverse events
  • Assessment
  • Children
  • Parents
  • Scale
  • Suicidality

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