Development and psychometric validation of the Discrimination and Prejudice Responses Scale; the DAPR.

Lauren Armstrong, Claire Henderson, Katharine A. Rimes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The ways in which people respond to stigma can have important consequences for health outcomes, yet there is no measure that assesses responses to stigma that can be used across groups stigmatized for different reasons. The aims of this study were to develop and psychometrically evaluate a new stigma responses questionnaire that can be used by individuals with different types of stigmatized characteristics: the Discrimination and Prejudice Responses Scale (DAPR). On the basis of qualitative interviews with 20 people with lived experience of stigma, 96 items were developed. A principal components analysis (n = 966) identified 11 factors containing a total of 44 items: Preparation, Enjoyable Activity, Raise Awareness, Group Attachment, Rumination, Blame, Preparation, Self-Reliance, Avoidance, Distancing, and Secrecy. Each factor was found to have good reliability (α = .67 to 0.94) and acceptability. Confirmatory factor analysis (n = 592) confirmed the 11-factor model and provided validity for the measure. Each subscale of the DAPR was found to be significantly associated with related questionnaires in the expected directions, providing evidence for concurrent validity (n = 546). One-week test–retest reliability (n = 154) was examined, with weighted Cohen’s kappa values ranging from 0.41–0.61 for each scale. Overall, the DAPR displayed sound psychometric properties with regard to factor structure, reliability, acceptability, and validity. In conclusion, the DAPR is a reliable and valid measure of responding to stigma, prejudice, and discrimination which can be used across a variety of marginalized groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-303
Number of pages10
JournalStigma and Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • assessment
  • discrimination
  • measure
  • prejudice
  • stigma


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