Development and Testing of an Ultrasound-Compatible Cardiac Phantom for Interventional Procedure Simulation Using Direct Three-Dimensional Printing

Shu Wang*, Yohan Noh, Jemma Brown, Sébastien Roujol, Ye Li, Shuangyi Wang, Richard Housden, Mar Casajuana Ester, Maleha Al-Hamadani, Ronak Rajani, Kawal Rhode

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
64 Downloads (Pure)


Organ phantoms are widely used for evaluating medical technologies, training clinical practitioners, as well as surgical planning. In the context of cardiovascular disease, a patient-specific cardiac phantom can play an important role for interventional cardiology procedures. However, phantoms with complicated structures are difficult to fabricate by conventional manufacturing methods. The emergence of three-dimensional (3D) printing with soft materials provides the opportunity to produce phantoms with complex geometries and realistic properties. In this work, the aim was to explore the use of a direct 3D printing technique to produce multimodal imaging cardiac phantoms and to test the physical properties of the new materials used, namely the Poro-Lay series and TangoPlus. The cardiac phantoms were first modeled using real data segmented from a patient chest computer tomography (CT) scan and then printed with the novel materials. They were then tested quantitatively in terms of stiffness and ultrasound (US) acoustic values and qualitatively with US, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging systems. From the stiffness measurements, Lay-fomm 40 had the closest Young's modulus to real myocardium with an error of 29-54%, while TangoPlus had the largest difference. From the US acoustics measurements, Lay-fomm 40 also demonstrated the closest soft tissue-mimicking properties with both the smallest attenuation and impedance differences. Furthermore, the imaging results show that the phantoms are compatible with multiple imaging modalities and thus have potential to be used for interventional procedure simulation and testing of novel interventional devices. In conclusion, direct 3D printing with Poro-Lay and TangoPlus is a promising method for manufacture of multimodal imaging phantoms with complicated structures, especially for soft patient-specific phantoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)269-278
Number of pages10
Journal3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • 3D printing
  • cardiac phantom
  • interventional cardiology
  • multimodal imaging


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