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Development of Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyles for Diabetes, a culturally tailored diabetes self-management education and support programme for Black-British adults: A participatory research approach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Accepted/In press2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: We are grateful to the participants for their involvement. We would like to thank Alastair Duncan for assisting with facilitating the workshops, and the staff of Blackfriars Settlement for accommodating our needs. This report is independent research arising from a Career Development Fellowship (Louise M. Goff, CDF‐2015‐08‐006) supported by the National Institute for Health Research. LMG and APM are supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Applied Research Collaboration South London at King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

King's Authors


Aims: To develop an evidence-based, culturally tailored, diabetes self-management education and support programme for Black-British adults, called Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyles for Diabetes (HEAL-D), using participatory methods to engage key stakeholders in the intervention design process. Methods: Black-British adults living with type 2 diabetes, healthcare professionals and community leaders were engaged in an intervention development study. The intervention structure, format, content and delivery were developed through three phases of participatory research: Phase 1, formative research, involved focus groups and interviews; interactive co-development workshops were conducted in Phase 2; and Phase 3 focused on materials development. Results: In Phase 1, focus groups and interviews identified the importance of nurturing collectivism, a reliance on informal sources of information/advice, barriers to attending appointments associated with competing priorities of work, travel and carer commitments, and a preference for directness and simple, clear advice/messages. A priority for healthcare professionals was the intervention embedding within current primary care structures and aligning with incentivised targets/metrics. Phase 2 (workshops) highlighted key requirements: avoidance of medical settings, appropriately trained and culturally knowledgeable educators, flexible appointments, preference for verbal and visual information and avoidance of technical/medical terminology. In Phase 3 (materials development), culturally sensitive videos, short films and information booklets were developed to convey educational messages, and food photography was used to provide culturally relevant dietary advice. Conclusions: Participatory methods provide a means to understand the needs of specific communities. This approach enables the development of healthcare interventions that are sensitive to the needs of service users and providers.

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