Development of peanut, sesame and tree nut allergy in Polish children at high risk of food allergy: a protocol for a cross-sectional study

Klaudia Ryczaj, Agnieszka Szczukocka-Zych, Maria Wawszczak, Julia Gawryjołek, Aneta Krogulska, Marta Krawiec, Andrea Horvath, Hania Szajewska, Alexandra Santos, Henry T Bahnson, Marek Kulus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: Peanut allergies cause serious health problems worldwide. A strong finding has shown that the early introduction of peanuts into the diet of infants at high risk of food allergy reduces the prevalence of peanut allergy. Allergies to peanuts, sesame and tree nuts have been shown to coexist in 60% of cases and vary according to geographical location and dietary habits. Insights into the prevalence of nut and seed allergies in societies with varying consumption levels are essential for developing population-specific weaning guidelines. Understanding the age at which peanut allergy develops is paramount for successful early introduction strategies.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a cross-sectional study at two tertiary allergy centres in Warsaw and Bydgoszcz. Two hundred forty children aged 4-36 months with eczema or egg allergy will undergo an extensive assessment of their peanut, sesame and tree nut allergy status through skin testing, specific IgE measurements and oral food challenges. The primary outcome is the prevalence of peanut, sesame and tree nut allergies in Polish children at high risk of food allergy. Additionally, the timing of the development of peanut, sesame and tree nut allergies in the first 3 years of life in a high-risk population will be assessed.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committee of the Medical University of Warsaw, Poland approved this protocol (KB/86/2021). The results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal no later than 1 year after data collection. The abstract will be presented at relevant national and international conferences.Although the authors may be able to commit to journal submission no later than 1 year after data collection, publication dates remain beyond their control.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbere074168
Pages (from-to)e074168
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 16 Nov 2023


  • Infant
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Nut Hypersensitivity/epidemiology
  • Peanut Hypersensitivity/epidemiology
  • Arachis
  • Sesamum
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Poland/epidemiology
  • Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology
  • Nuts
  • Allergens
  • Prevalence

Cite this