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Dietary patterns derived from principal component analysis (PCA) and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, Victoria Morton, Teresa Norat, André Moreira, James F Potts, Tim Reeves, Ioannis Bakolis

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
DOIs
E-pub ahead of print26 Jul 2018

King's Authors

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, with dietary habits being a major risk factor. We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the observational evidence on the association between CRC and dietary patterns (DP) derived from principal component analysis.

DESIGN: PRISMA guidelines were followed. Web of Science, Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched to identify all eligible papers published up to the 31st July 2017. Any pre-defined cancer of the colon was included, namely colon-rectal cancer (CRC), colon cancer (CC), rectal cancer (RC), or proximal and distal CC, if available. Western (WDP) and prudent (PDP) dietary patterns were compared as a proxy to estimate "unhealthy" (Rich in meat and processed foods) and "healthy" diets (containing fruits or vegetables), respectively. Meta-analyses were carried out using random effects model to calculate overall risk estimates. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated comparing the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary patterns for any of the forms of colon cancer studied.

RESULTS: 28 studies were meta-analysed. A WDP was associated with increased risk of CRC (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.11, 1.40), and of CC (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.11, 1.52). A PDP was negatively associated with CRC (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.73, 0.91). Sensitivity analyses showed that individuals from North-and South-American countries had a significantly higher risk of CRC than those from other continents.

CONCLUSION: A PDP might reduce the risk of CRC. Conversely, a WDP is associated with a higher risk of disease.

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