Differences in Health at Age 100 According to Sex: Population-Based Cohort Study of Centenarians Using Electronic Health Records

Nisha C. Hazra*, Alex Dregan, Stephen Jackson, Martin C. Gulliford

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)
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Objectives: To use primary care electronic health records (EHRs) to evaluate the health of men and women at age 100. 

Design: Population-based cohort study. 

Setting: Primary care database in the United Kingdom, 1990-2013. 

Participants: Individuals reaching the age of 100 between 1990 and 2013 (N = 11,084, n = 8,982 women, n = 2,102 men). 

Measurements: Main categories of morbidity and an index of multiple morbidities, geriatric syndromes and an index of multiple impairments, cardiovascular risk factors. 

Results: The number of new female centenarians per year increased from 16 per 100,000 in 1990-94 to 25 per 100,000 in 2010-13 (P < .001) and of male centenarians from four per 100,000 to six per 100,000 (P = .06). The most prevalent morbidities at the age of 100 were musculoskeletal diseases, disorders of the senses, and digestive diseases. Women had greater multiple morbidity than men (odds ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.42-1.89, P < .001). Geriatric syndromes, including falls, fractures, hearing and vision impairment, and dementia, were frequent; 30% of women and 49% of men had no recorded geriatric syndromes. Women had greater likelihood of having multiple geriatric syndromes (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.90-2.41, P < .001). 

Conclusion: Fewer men than women reach the age of 100, but male centenarians have lower morbidity and fewer geriatric syndromes than women. Research using EHRs offers opportunities to understand the epidemiology of aging and improve care of the oldest old.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1331-1337
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Issue number7
Early online date21 Jun 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2015


  • Aging
  • Centenarians
  • Epidemiology
  • General practice
  • Primary care


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