The ability to append targeting biomolecules to chelators that efficiently coordinate to the diagnostic imaging radionuclide, 99mTc, and the therapeutic radionuclide, 188Re, can potentially enable receptor-targeted “theranostic” treatment of disease. Here we show that Pt(0)-catalyzed hydrophosphination reactions are well-suited to the derivatization of diphosphines with biomolecular moieties enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands of the type Ph2PCH2CH2P(CH2CH2-Glc)2 (L, where Glc = a glucose moiety) using the readily accessible Ph2PCH2CH2PH2 and acryl derivatives. It is shown that hydrophosphination of an acrylate derivative of a deprotected glucose can be carried out in aqueous media. Furthermore, the resulting glucose-chelator conjugates can be radiolabeled with either 99mTc(V) or 188Re(V) in high radiochemical yields (>95%), to furnish separable mixtures of cis- and trans-[M(O)2L2]+ (M = Tc, Re). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and ex vivo biodistribution in healthy mice show that each isomer possesses favorable pharmacokinetic properties, with rapid clearance from blood circulation via a renal pathway. Both cis-[99mTc(O)2L2]+ and trans-[99mTc(O)2L2]+ exhibit high stability in serum. This new class of functionalized diphosphine chelators has the potential to provide access to receptor-targeted dual diagnostic/therapeutic pairs of radiopharmaceutical agents, for molecular 99mTc SPECT imaging and 188Re systemic radiotherapy.