Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are two related and incurable neurodegenerative diseases. Features of these diseases include pathological protein inclusions in affected neurons with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), dipeptide repeat proteins derived from the C9ORF72 gene, and fused in sarcoma (FUS) representing major constituent proteins in these inclusions. Mutations in C9ORF72 and the genes encoding TDP-43 and FUS cause familial forms of FTD/ALS which provides evidence to link the pathology and genetics of these diseases. A large number of seemingly disparate physiological functions are damaged in FTD/ALS. However, many of these damaged functions are regulated by signalling between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and this has stimulated investigations into the role of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria signalling in FTD/ALS disease processes. Here, we review progress on this topic.