Diuretic dose trajectories in dilated cardiomyopathy: prognostic implications

Vincenzo Nuzzi, Antonio Cannatà, Pierpaolo Pellicori, Paolo Manca, Davide Stolfo, Caterina Gregorio, Giulia Barbati, Daniel I. Bromage, Theresa McDonagh, John G.F. Cleland, Marco Merlo*, Gianfranco Sinagra

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: For patients with heart failure, prescription of loop diuretics (LD) and of higher doses are associated with an adverse prognosis. We investigated LD dose trajectories and their associations with outcomes in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods: Associations between outcomes and both furosemide-equivalent dose (FED) at enrolment and change in FED in the subsequent 24 months were evaluated. According to FED trajectory, patients were classified as (i) dose↑ (FED increase by ≥ 50% or newly initiated); (ii) dose↓ (FED decrease by ≥ 50%); (iii) stable dose (change in FED by < 50%); and (iv) never-users. The primary outcome was all-cause-death/heart transplantation/ventricular-assist-device/heart failure hospitalization. The secondary outcome was all-cause-death/heart transplantation/ventricular-assist-device. Results: Of 1,131 patients enrolled, 738 (65%) were prescribed LD at baseline. Baseline FED was independently associated with outcome (HR per 20 mg increase: 1.12 [95% CI 1.04–1.22], p = 0.003).Of the 908 with information on FED within 24 months from enrolment, 31% were never-users; 29% were dose↓; 26% were stable dose and 14% were dose↑. In adjusted models, compared to never-users, stable dose had a higher risk of the primary outcome (HR 2.42 [95% CI 1.19–4.93], p = 0.015), while dose↑ had the worst prognosis (HR 2.76 [95% CI 1.27–6.03], p = 0.011). Results were similar for the secondary outcome. Compared to patients who remained on LD, discontinuation of LD (143, 24%) was associated with an improved outcome (HR 0.43 [95% CI 0.28–0.65], p < 0.001). Conclusions: In patients with DCM, LD use and increasing FED are powerful markers of adverse outcomes. Patients who never receive LD have an excellent prognosis. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-430
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Research in Cardiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2022


  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Heart failure
  • Long-term trajectories
  • Loop diuretics
  • Prognostic associations


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