Do different factors influence whether girls versus boys meet ADHD diagnostic criteria? Sex differences among children with high ADHD symptoms

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Abstract

We investigate if different factors influence whether girls versus boys meet diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) among children with high ADHD symptoms. Participants were 283 children aged 7–12 from a population-based study. Girls and boys meeting diagnostic criteria for ADHD, based on an objective investigator-based interview, were compared to children who did not meet criteria despite high symptoms on a rating-scale measure of ADHD. We assessed factors that could differentially relate to diagnosis across girls and boys including ADHD symptoms, co-occurring behavioural/emotional problems and impairment, and sex-effects in rater perceptions of ADHD symptoms. While overall similar factors distinguished girls and boys who met diagnostic criteria from high-symptom peers, effect sizes were larger in girls. Emotional problems were particularly salient to distinguishing diagnosed versus high-symptom girls but not boys. Parents rated boys meeting diagnostic criteria as more impaired than high-symptom boys but did not do so for girls, and under-rated diagnosed girls’ hyperactive/impulsive symptoms compared to more objective interview assessment, with the opposite observed in boys. Results suggest girls’ ADHD may need to be made more prominent by additional behavioural/emotional problems for them to meet full diagnostic criteria and that sex differences in parental perceptions of ADHD behaviours and impairment exist.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)765-773
Number of pages9
JournalPsychiatry Research
Volume272
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019

Keywords

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Diagnosis
  • Gender differences
  • Non-referred/population-based

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