Do Junior Entrants to the UK Armed Forces have worse outcomes than Standard Entrants?

Margaret Jones*, N. Jones, H. Burdett, B. P. Bergman, N. T. Fear, S. Wessely, R. J. Rona

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Introduction: The UK is the only permanent member of the UN Security Council that has a policy of recruiting 16 and 17 year old individuals into its regular Armed Forces. Little is known about the consequences of enlisting as a Junior Entrant (JE), although concerns have been expressed. We compare the mental health, deployment history, and pre-enlistment and post-enlistment experiences of personnel who had enlisted as JEs with personnel who joined as Standard Entrants (SEs). Method: Participants from a large UK military cohort study completed a self-report questionnaire between 2014 and 2016 that included symptoms of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), common mental disorders, alcohol consumption, physical symptoms and lifetime self-harm. Data from regular non-officer participants (n=4447) from all service branches were used in the analysis. JEs were defined as having enlisted before the age of 17.5 years. A subgroup analysis of participants who had joined or commenced adult service after April 2003 was carried out. Results: JEs were not more likely to deploy to Iraq or Afghanistan but were more likely to hold a combat role when they did (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.56). There was no evidence of an increase in symptoms of common mental disorders, PTSD, multiple somatic symptoms (MSS), alcohol misuse or self-harm in JEs in the full sample, but there was an increase in alcohol misuse (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.87), MSS (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.20) and self-harm (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.95) in JEs who had commenced adult service after April 2003. JEs remain in adult service for longer and do not have more difficulties when they leave service. Conclusions: JEs do not have worse mental health than SEs, but there is uncertainty in relation to alcohol misuse, MSS and self-harm in more recent joiners. Monitoring these concerns is advisable.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBMJ Military Health
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • epidemiology
  • mental health
  • occupational & industrial medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Do Junior Entrants to the UK Armed Forces have worse outcomes than Standard Entrants?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this