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Do-It-Yourself Artificial Pancreas Systems: A Review of the Emerging Evidence and Insights for Healthcare Professionals

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Peter Jennings, Sufyan Hussain

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)868-877
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Issue number5
Early online date17 Dec 2019
Accepted/In press7 Nov 2019
E-pub ahead of print17 Dec 2019
PublishedSep 2020


King's Authors


Application of artificial pancreas systems in type 1 diabetes (T1D) represents a change in approach to managing complex glucose and insulin dynamics using automated features with higher levels of safety, precision, and reliability than those afforded by manual adjustments. To date, limited commercial systems and more widely used open-source, hybrid closed loop, Do-It-Yourself Artificial Pancreas Systems (DIY APS) have been used in nontrial real-world management of T1D. The aims of this article are twofold. First, itsynthesizes the emerging literature on DIY APS and identifies a range of evidence including research, reviews, commentaries, and opinion pieces written by DIY APS users, healthcare professionals (HCPs), and researchers. It summarizes the emerging clinical evidence for DIY APS and provide insight into how the DIY APS movement began, has been disseminated throughout diabetes online communities, and is reshaping self-management of T1D in real-world settings. Second, the article provides commentaries that explore implications of DIY APS to healthcare practice. DIY APS are radically changing T1D management. Automating the process of frequently analyzing glucose readings and appropriately titrating insulin delivery is liberating people with T1D (PWD) from some of the demands of intensive management. Within this super-specialized area of T1D management, the expertise of DIY APS users has outstripped that of many HCPs. While educational, ethical, and legal constraints need to be resolved, HCPs still need to stay abreast of this rapidly developing area. Further research is needed to inform policy and practice relating to DIY APS. Meanwhile, HCPs continue to learn from PWD's real-world experiences of building and using DIY APS to improve metabolic and psychological outcomes.

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