Abstract

BACKGROUND: Automatic transdiagnostic risk calculators can improve detection of individuals at risk of psychosis. However, they rely on a single point in time assessment and can be refined with dynamic modelling techniques that account for changes in risk over time.

METHODS: We included n=158,139 patients (n=5,007 events) receiving a first index diagnosis of a non-organic and non-psychotic mental disorder within Electronic Health Records from the SLaM NHS Foundation Trust between 01/01/2008 and 10/08/2021. A dynamic Cox landmark model was developed to estimate the 2-year risk of developing psychosis according to TRIPOD statement. The dynamic model included 24 predictors extracted at nine landmark points (baseline, 0, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 42, and 48 months): three demographic, one clinical, and 20 Natural Language Processing (NLP) based symptom and substance use predictors. Performance was compared to a static Cox regression model with all predictors assessed at baseline only, indexed via discrimination (C-index), calibration (calibration plots), and potential clinical utility (decision curves) in internal-external validation.

RESULTS: The dynamic model improves discrimination performance compared to the static model at baseline (dynamic: C-index=0.9; static: C-index=0.87) to the final landmark point (dynamic: C-index=0.79; static: C-index=0.76). The dynamic model was also significantly better calibrated (calibration slope=0.97-1.1) than the static model at later landmark points (≥24 months). Net benefit was higher in the dynamic compared to the static model at later landmark points (≥24 months).

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dynamic prediction models can improve detection of individuals at risk for psychosis in secondary mental health care.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBiological psychiatry
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Jun 2024

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