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Dynamic changes of self-stigma, quality of life, somatic complaints, and depression among people with schizophrenia: A pilot study applying kernel smoothers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Chung-Ying Lin, Chih-Cheng Chang, Tsung-Hsien Wu, Jung-Der Wang

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-43
JournalStigma and Health
Issue number1

King's Authors


The aims of this study are to verify this sequential structure and to determine if self-stigma is associated with lower quality of life (QoL) and depression. A total of 160 patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. Each completed the Self-Stigma Scale-Short Form (SSS-S), the World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire on the Quality of Life, Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS) instruments. Dynamic changes of the measures of self-stigma and related QoL were analyzed using a kernel-type smoother. The effects of self-stigma on QoL and depression were assessed using multiple regression models. The dynamic changes of self-stigma scores seem to support a sequential structure. The general pattern is elevated for around 12 months, exceeds 2.5 after 54 months, and reaches a peak of about 90 months after diagnosis of schizophrenia, then declines and appears to be stabilized later on. While the DSSS scores synchronize with those of self-stigma, those of the WHOQOL-BREF seem to show an opposite trend. Self-stigma appears to be a dominator for QoL and depression for people with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia may develop self-stigma around 1 year after diagnosis. Early detection and management may improve patient QoL and minimize depression. However, the results of this pilot study should be interpreted with caution because of the cross-sectional design.

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