Effect of patellofemoral pain on foot posture and walking kinematics

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ABSTRACT Background: Excessive pronation has been implicated in patellofemoral pain (PFP) aetiology and foot orthoses are commonly prescribed for PFP patients. Pronation can be assessed using foot posture tests, however, the utility of such tests depends on their association with foot and lower-limb kinematics. Research questions: Do PFP participants compared with healthy participants (1) have a more pronated foot measured with static foot tests and a kinematic multi-segmental foot model and (2) is there an association between static foot posture and foot and lower limb kinematics during walking? Methods: A case-control study including 22 participants (n=11 PFP, 5 females per group, aged 24±3 (mean ± SD) years) was conducted. Foot posture measures included Arch Height Ratio, Navicular Drop (ND), and Foot Posture Index. Between-group comparisons of foot posture, segment and joint angle magnitudes, and associations between foot posture and kinematic data during gait were evaluated. Results: There were no group differences in foot posture tests and mean joint angles. PFP participants had greater internal rotation of the shank and rearfoot segments, and adduction of the mid- and forefoot in the transverse plane (all p<0.05). Greater ND was associated with increased forefoot abduction (rho=-0.68, p=0.02) in healthy participants but no relationships were found between foot posture and kinematics in PFP participants. Significance: Foot posture and kinematic data did not indicate excessive pronation in PFP participants questioning the use of orthoses to correct pronation. Larger studies are needed to determine the utility of foot posture tests as indicators of gait abnormalities in PFP. Word count: 250 KEYWORDS (6 max): patellofemoral pain; kinematics; walking; foot; pronation
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-369
Number of pages9
Early online date18 Mar 2019
Publication statusPublished - May 2019


  • Foot
  • Kinematics
  • Patellofemoral pain
  • Pronation
  • Walking


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