Effects of a personalized nutrition program on cardiometabolic health: a randomized controlled trial

Kate Bermingham, Inbar Linenberg, Lorenzo Polidori, Francesco Asnicar, Alberto Arre, Jonathan Wolf, Fatema Badri, Hannah Bernard, Joan Capdevila, William J. Bulsiewicz, Christopher D. Gardner, José M Ordovas, Richard Davies, George Hadjigeorgiou, Wendy Hall, Linda M. Delahanty, Ana Valdes, Nicola Segata, Tim Spector, Sarah Berry

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Large variability exists in people’s responses to foods. However, the efficacy of personalized dietary advice for health remains understudied. We compared a personalized dietary program (PDP) versus general advice (control) on cardiometabolic health using a randomized clinical trial. The PDP used food characteristics, individual postprandial glucose and triglyceride (TG) responses to foods, microbiomes and health history, to produce personalized food scores in an 18-week app-based program. The control group received standard care dietary advice (US Department of Agriculture Guidelines for Americans, 2020–2025) using online resources, check-ins, video lessons and a leaflet. Primary outcomes were serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and TG concentrations at baseline and at 18 weeks. Participants (n = 347), aged 41–70 years and generally representative of the average US population, were randomized to the PDP (n = 177) or control (n = 170). Intention-to-treat analysis (n = 347) between groups showed significant reduction in TGs (mean difference = −0.13 mmol l −1; log-transformed 95% confidence interval = −0.07 to −0.01, P = 0.016). Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not significant. There were improvements in secondary outcomes, including body weight, waist circumference, HbA1c, diet quality and microbiome (beta-diversity) (P < 0.05), particularly in highly adherent PDP participants. However, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, C-peptide, apolipoprotein A1 and B, and postprandial TGs did not differ between groups. No serious intervention-related adverse events were reported. Following a personalized diet led to some improvements in cardiometabolic health compared to standard dietary advice. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT05273268.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 8 May 2024


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