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Effects of smoking cessation on β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, body weight, and appetite

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marietta Stadler, Larissa Tomann, Angela Storka, Michael Wolzt, Slobodan Peric, Christian Bieglmayer, Giovanni Pacini, Suzanne L Dickson, Helmut Brath, Paul Bech, Rudolf Prager, Márta Korbonits

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-227
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Volume170
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2014

King's Authors

Abstract

Objective: To stop smoking is commonly associated with significant weight gain, but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. We assessed the effects of smoking cessation on body weight, insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and appetite. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-seven long-term smokers (n=27; nine females/18 males, 28±1 years, 22.9±0.6 kg/m2) attending an ambulatory smoking cessation program in a community hospital in Vienna, Austria were examined at baseline (Visit A; still smoking) and after a minimum of 3 months of smoking abstinence (Visit B; n=14); relapsed smokers were not followed up. Participants underwent 3-h oral glucose tolerance tests and body composition measurements at each study visit. Fasting (QUICKI) and dynamic (oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS)) insulin sensitivity and β-cell secretion (insulinogenic index 140 (IGI40)) were calculated. Food intake was quantified with a free choice buffet. Fasting plasma concentrations of neuropeptide-Y (NPY), peptide-YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), leptin, ghrelin, and visfatin were measured. Results: After >3 months' smoking abstinence, body weight, and fat mass were increased (+4 and +22% respectively, P<0.05) and fasting insulin sensitivity deteriorated (QUICKI: post, 0.37±0.02 vs baseline, 0.41±0.2; P<0.05), while OGIS remained unchanged throughout. IGI40 increased by 31% after >3 months' smoking abstinence (P<0.01). Carbohydrate ingestion increased after stopping smoking (P<0.05). NPY fasting levels were increased after >3 months (P<0.05), PYY, GLP1, leptin, ghrelin, and visfatin were unchanged. Conclusion: Smoking cessation is associated with transient metabolic changes including increased β-cell secretion in response to glucose and fasting insulin resistance. These alterations may be associated with or contribute to the body weight gain after smoking cessation.

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