Electrocardiographic imaging for cardiac arrhythmias and resynchronization therapy

Helder Pereira*, Steven Niederer, Christopher A. Rinaldi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Use of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is fundamental for the assessment of heart disease, including arrhythmias, but cannot always reveal the underlying mechanism or the location of the arrhythmia origin. Electrocardiographic imaging (ECGi) is a non-invasive multi-lead ECG-Type imaging tool that enhances conventional 12-lead ECG. Although it is an established technology, its continuous development has been shown to assist in arrhythmic activation mapping and provide insights into the mechanism of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This review addresses the validity, reliability, and overall feasibility of ECGi for use in a diverse range of arrhythmias. A systematic search limited to full-Text human studies published in peer-reviewed journals was performed through Medline via PubMed, using various combinations of three key concepts: ECGi, arrhythmia, and CRT. A total of 456 studies were screened through titles and abstracts. Ultimately, 42 studies were included for literature review. Evidence to date suggests that ECGi can be used to provide diagnostic insights regarding the mechanistic basis of arrhythmias and the location of arrhythmia origin. Furthermore, ECGi can yield valuable information to guide therapeutic decision-making, including during CRT. Several studies have used ECGi as a diagnostic tool for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. More recently, studies have tested the value of this technique in predicting outcomes of CRT. As a non-invasive method for assessing cardiovascular disease, particularly arrhythmias, ECGi represents a significant advancement over standard procedures in contemporary cardiology. Its full potential has yet to be fully explored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1447-1462
Number of pages16
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


  • Arrhythmias
  • Assessment
  • Body surface electrocardiogram
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Electrocardiographic imaging
  • Mapping


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