Electrophysiological characterization of activation state-dependent Cav2 channel antagonist TROX-1 in spinal nerve injured rats

R. Patel*, K. Rutten, M. Valdor, K. Schiene, S. Wigge, S. Schunk, N. Damann, T. Christoph, A. H. Dickenson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Prialt, a synthetic version of Cav2.2 antagonist ω-conotoxin MVIIA derived from Conus magus, is the first clinically approved voltage-gated calcium channel blocker for refractory chronic pain. However, due to the narrow therapeutic window and considerable side effects associated with systemic dosing, Prialt is only administered intrathecally. N-triazole oxindole (TROX-1) is a novel use-dependent and activation state-selective small-molecule inhibitor of Cav2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 calcium channels designed to overcome the limitations of Prialt. We have examined the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of blocking calcium channels with TROX-1. In vitro, TROX-1, in contrast to state-independent antagonist Prialt, preferentially inhibits Cav2.2 currents in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons under depolarized conditions. In vivo electrophysiology was performed to record from deep dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurons in non-sentient spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) and sham-operated rats. In SNL rats, spinal neurons exhibited reduced responses to innocuous and noxious punctate mechanical stimulation of the receptive field following subcutaneous administration of TROX-1, an effect that was absent in sham-operated animals. No effect was observed on neuronal responses evoked by dynamic brushing, heat or cold stimulation in SNL or sham rats. The wind-up response of spinal neurons following repeated electrical stimulation of the receptive field was also unaffected. Spinally applied TROX-1 dose dependently inhibited mechanically evoked neuronal responses in SNL but not sham-operated rats, consistent with behavioral observations. This study confirms the pathological state-dependent actions of TROX-1 through a likely spinal mechanism and reveals a modality selective change in calcium channel function following nerve injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-57
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jun 2015


  • Ca2.2
  • Dorsal horn
  • Dorsal root ganglia
  • Electrophysiology
  • N-type calcium channel
  • Spinal nerve ligation


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