Electrophysiological Characterization of Subclinical and Overt Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy by Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Electrocardiography

George Joy*, Luis R. Lopes, Matthew Webber, Alessandra M. Ardissino, James Wilson, Fiona Chan, Iain Pierce, Rebecca K. Hughes, Konstantinos Moschonas, Hunain Shiwani, Robert Jamieson, Paula P. Velazquez, Ramya Vijayakumar, Erica Dall'Armellina, Peter W. Macfarlane, Charlotte Manisty, Peter Kellman, Rhodri H. Davies, Maite Tome, Vladan KoncarXuyuan Tao, Christoph Guger, Yoram Rudy, Alun D. Hughes, Pier D. Lambiase, James C. Moon, Michele Orini, Gabriella Captur

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Ventricular arrhythmia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) relates to adverse structural change and genetic status. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)–guided electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) noninvasively maps cardiac structural and electrophysiological (EP) properties. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish whether in subclinical HCM (genotype [G]+ left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH]−), ECGI detects early EP abnormality, and in overt HCM, whether the EP substrate relates to genetic status (G+/G−LVH+) and structural phenotype. Methods: This was a prospective 211-participant CMR-ECGI multicenter study of 70 G+LVH−, 104 LVH+ (51 G+/53 G−), and 37 healthy volunteers (HVs). Local activation time (AT), corrected repolarization time, corrected activation-recovery interval, spatial gradients (GAT/GRTc), and signal fractionation were derived from 1,000 epicardial sites per participant. Maximal wall thickness and scar burden were derived from CMR. A support vector machine was built to discriminate G+LVH− from HV and low-risk HCM from those with intermediate/high-risk score or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Results: Compared with HV, subclinical HCM showed mean AT prolongation (P = 0.008) even with normal 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) (P = 0.009), and repolarization was more spatially heterogenous (GRTc: P = 0.005) (23% had normal ECGs). Corrected activation-recovery interval was prolonged in overt vs subclinical HCM (P < 0.001). Mean AT was associated with maximal wall thickness; spatial conduction heterogeneity (GAT) and fractionation were associated with scar (all P < 0.05), and G+LVH+ had more fractionation than G−LVH+ (P = 0.002). The support vector machine discriminated subclinical HCM from HV (10-fold cross-validation accuracy 80% [95% CI: 73%-85%]) and identified patients at higher risk of sudden cardiac death (accuracy 82% [95% CI: 78%-86%]). Conclusions: In the absence of LVH or 12-lead ECG abnormalities, HCM sarcomere gene mutation carriers express an aberrant EP phenotype detected by ECGI. In overt HCM, abnormalities occur more severely with adverse structural change and positive genetic status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1042-1055
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2024


  • cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
  • ECG imaging
  • electrophysiology
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy


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