Energy drink use frequency among an international sample of people who use drugs: Associations with other substance use and well-being

Amy Peacock, Raimondo Bruno, Jason Ferris, Adam Winstock

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    13 Citations (Scopus)
    202 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Objective The study aims were to identify: i.) energy drink (ED), caffeine tablet, and caffeine intranasal spray use amongst a sample who report drug use, and ii.) the association between ED use frequency and demographic profile, drug use, hazardous drinking, and wellbeing. Method Participants (n = 74,864) who reported drug use completed the online 2014 Global Drug Survey. They provided data on demographics, ED use, and alcohol and drug use, completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), and reported whether they wished to reduce alcohol use. Results Lifetime ED, caffeine tablet and intranasal caffeine spray use was reported by 69.2%, 24.5% and 4.9%. Median age of ED initiation was 16 years. For those aged 16–37, median years using EDs increased from 4 to 17 years of consumption, where it declined thereafter. Greater ED use frequency was associated with: being male; under 21 years of age; studying; and past year caffeine tablet/intranasal spray, tobacco, cannabis, amphetamine, MDMA, and cocaine use. Past year, infrequent (1–4 days) and frequent (≥5 days) past month ED consumers reported higher AUDIT scores and lower PWI scores than lifetime abstainers; past month consumers were less likely to report a desire to reduce alcohol use. Conclusions ED use is part of a complex interplay of drug use, alcohol problems, and poorer personal wellbeing, and ED use frequency may be a flag for current/future problems. Prospective research is required exploring where ED use fits within the trajectory of other alcohol and drug use.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)70-79
    JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
    Volume174
    Early online date28 Feb 2017
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Feb 2017

    Keywords

    • energy drink
    • caffeine
    • alcohol
    • ecstasy
    • stimulant

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