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Enhancing the accuracy of non-invasive glucose sensing in aqueous solutions using combined millimeter wave and near infrared transmission

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Helena Cano-Garcia, Rohit Kshirsagar, Roberto Pricci, Ahmed Teyeb, Fergus O’brien, Shimul Saha, Panagiotis Kosmas, Efthymios Kallos

Original languageEnglish
Article number3275
Issue number9
Published1 May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: Funding: This research was funded partially by Innovate UK project 104554 (2019–2021). Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

King's Authors


We reported measurement results relating to non-invasive glucose sensing using a novel multiwavelength approach that combines radio frequency and near infrared signals in transmission through aqueous glucose-loaded solutions. Data were collected simultaneously in the 37–39 GHz and 900–1800 nm electromagnetic bands. We successfully detected changes in the glucose solutions with varying glucose concentrations between 80 and 5000 mg/dl. The measurements showed for the first time that, compared to single modality systems, greater accuracy on glucose level prediction can be achieved when combining transmission data from these distinct electromagnetic bands, boosted by machine learning algorithms.

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