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Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 2020

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R. E. Neale, P. W. Barnes, T. M. Robson, P. J. Neale, C. E. Williamson, R. G. Zepp, S. R. Wilson, S. Madronich, A. L. Andrady, A. M. Heikkilä, G. H. Bernhard, A. F. Bais, P. J. Aucamp, A. T. Banaszak, J. F. Bornman, L. S. Bruckman, S. N. Byrne, B. Foereid, D. P. Häder, L. M. Hollestein & 26 more W. C. Hou, S. Hylander, M. A.K. Jansen, A. R. Klekociuk, J. B. Liley, J. Longstreth, R. M. Lucas, J. Martinez-Abaigar, K. McNeill, C. M. Olsen, K. K. Pandey, L. E. Rhodes, S. A. Robinson, K. C. Rose, T. Schikowski, K. R. Solomon, B. Sulzberger, J. E. Ukpebor, Q. W. Wang, S. Wängberg, C. C. White, S. Yazar, A. R. Young, P. J. Young, L. Zhu, M. Zhu

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhotochemical and Photobiological Sciences
Issue number1
Accepted/In press2021
PublishedJan 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: PWB was supported by the J.H. Mullahy Endowment for Environmental Biology. TMR was partially supported by the University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biological & Environmental Sciences, and by the Academy of Finland (decision #324555). PJN was supported by the Smithsonian Institution. CEW was supported by NSF DEB 1754267, and NSF DEB 1950170. RGZ was supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency—the views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ATB was supported by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and thanks M. en C. Laura Celis for help with literature searches. SH was supported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and Linnaeus University. MAKJ was supported by Science Foundation Ireland (16-IA-4418). JM-A was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities and European Regional Development Fund (project PGC2018-093824-B-C42). KM was supported by ETH Zurich. LER was supported by the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre. SAR was supported by the Australian Research Council and the University of Wollongong’s Global Challenges Program. KCR was supported by NSF grants 1754265 and 1761805. Q-WW gratefully acknowledges financial support from the CAS Young Talents Program and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41971148). SY was supported by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council CJ Martin Fellowship. We thank Emma Lesley (Global Challenges Program, University of Wollongong, for assistance with Fig. ). Publisher Copyright: © 2021, The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

King's Authors


This assessment by the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provides the latest scientific update since our most recent comprehensive assessment (Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 2019, 18, 595–828). The interactive effects between the stratospheric ozone layer, solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and climate change are presented within the framework of the Montreal Protocol and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. We address how these global environmental changes affect the atmosphere and air quality; human health; terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; biogeochemical cycles; and materials used in outdoor construction, solar energy technologies, and fabrics. In many cases, there is a growing influence from changes in seasonality and extreme events due to climate change. Additionally, we assess the transmission and environmental effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, in the context of linkages with solar UV radiation and the Montreal Protocol.

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