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Epicardial electroanatomical mapping, radiofrequency ablation, and lesion imaging in the porcine left ventricle under real-time magnetic resonance imaging guidance —an in vivo feasibility study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Rahul K Mukherjee, Sébastien Roujol, Henry Chubb, James Harrison, Steven Williams, John Whitaker, Louisa O'Neill, John Silberbauer, Radhouene Neji, Rainer Schneider, Thomas Pohl, Tom Lloyd, Mark O'Neill, Reza Razavi, Steven Williams

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)f254-f262
Number of pages9
Issue numberF12
Early online date26 Dec 2017
Accepted/In press16 Oct 2017
E-pub ahead of print26 Dec 2017
Published26 Dec 2017


King's Authors


Aims: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for defining myocardial substrate in 3D and can be used to guide ventricular tachycardia ablation. We describe the feasibility of using a prototype magnetic resonance-guided electrophysiology (MR-EP) system in a pre-clinical model to perform real-time MRI-guided epicardial mapping, ablation, and lesion imaging with active catheter tracking.

Methods and results: Experiments were performed in vivo in pigs (n = 6) using an MR-EP guidance system research prototype (Siemens Healthcare) with an irrigated ablation catheter (Vision-MR, Imricor) and a dedicated electrophysiology recording system (Advantage-MR, Imricor). Following epicardial access, local activation and voltage maps were acquired, and targeted radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesions were delivered. Ablation lesions were visualized in real time during RF delivery using MR-thermometry and dosimetry. Hyper-acute and acute assessment of ablation lesions was also performed using native T1 mapping and late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE), respectively. High-quality epicardial bipolar electrograms were recorded with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10:1 for a signal of 1.5 mV. During epicardial ablation, localized temperature elevation could be visualized with a maximum temperature rise of 35 °C within 2 mm of the catheter tip relative to remote myocardium. Decreased native T1 times were observed (882 ± 107 ms) in the lesion core 3-5 min after lesion delivery and relative location of lesions matched well to LGE. There was a good correlation between ablation lesion site on the iCMR platform and autopsy.

Conclusion: The MR-EP system was able to successfully acquire epicardial voltage and activation maps in swine, deliver, and visualize ablation lesions, demonstrating feasibility for intraprocedural guidance and real-time assessment of ablation injury.

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